On December 17, 1941 — just 10 days after Pearl Harbor — a syndicated UP article was published in newspapers all over the U.S., alerting readers that

Treachery and violence are the weapons of Japan’s fifth column which operates through the notorious Black Dragon society. (…)
The head of Black Dragon is frail old Misuru Toyama, 87 years old, but still a master craftsman in international intrigue. (…)
Other members of the